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Abahssain H, Moukafih B, Essangri H, Mrabti H, Meddah B, Guessous F, Fadhil FZ, Souadka A, Errihani H.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 Jan;27(1):143-149.

Background: Ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE) is a rare and serious adverse reaction. Thus far, no standard medication has been documentedto be efficient in the reversal of IIE, and while ifosfamide infusion interruption and hydration are recommended, methylene blue (MB) administration remains controversial.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records to assess cases with IIE after ifosfamide infusion. We included all patients having received an ifosfamide infusion during their hospitalization in the medical oncology unit of the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco, between September 2016 and September 2017. We subsequently conducted a literature review to determine the role of MB in IIE by searching PubMed using the terms « Methylene Blue » and « Ifosfamide ».

Results: A total of 88 patients received ifosfamide, and four patients had IIE. Ifosfamide infusion was stopped immediately after the IIE occurrence, and patients underwent renal function correction with hydration. All patients received MB infusion, and three patients had an improvement of their neurological status. As regards the literature review, 34 articles were reviewed and 16 items were included in the review. Overall, 38 (65.5%) patients received MB infusion and 28 (75.6%) patients responded favorably to the treatment.

Conclusions: Methylene blue can be used as a treatment for IIE owing to the severity of the IIE as well as absence of standard medication. Nonetheless, side effects such as serotonergic syndrome should be investigated. More broadly, prospective studies and controlled trials are needed to explore the contribution of MB in IIE management and encourage its use.

Essangri H, Sabir M, Benkabbou A, Majbar MA, Amrani L, Ghannam A, Lekehal B, Mohsine R, Souadka A.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan;104(1):95-102.

The COVID-19 pandemic has great consequences on mental health. We aimed to assess medical students’ psychological condition and influencing factors as a baseline evidence for interventions promoting their mental wellbeing. We conducted an online survey from April 8 to April 18, 2020 to examine the mental health of medical students by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, seven-item Insomnia Severity Index, and six-item Kessler psychological distress scale. Factors associated with mental health outcomes were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Five hundred forty-nine students completed the survey; 341 (62.3%), 410 (74.6%), 344 (62.6%), and 379 (69%) reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, and distress, respectively. Female students, living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations, more than 25 days confinement, psychiatric consult history, and being in a preclinical level of studies had higher median scores and severe symptom levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed female gender as a risk factor for severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.653; 95% CI: 1.020-2.679; P = 0.042), depression (OR: 2.167; 95% CI: 1.435-3.271; P < 0.001), insomnia (OR: 1.830; 95% CI: 1.176-2.847; P = 0.007), and distress (OR: 1.994; 95% CI: 1.338-2.972; P = 0.001); preclinical level of enrollment as a risk factor for depression (OR: 0.679; 95% CI: 0.521-0.885; P = 0.004), insomnia (OR: 0.720; 95% CI: 0.545-0.949; P = 0.02), and distress (OR: 0.650; 95% CI: 0.499-0.847; P = 0.001), whereas living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations was a risk factor for severe anxiety (OR: 1.628; 95% CI: 1.090-2.432; P = 0.017) and depression (OR: 1.438; 95% CI: 1.002-2.097; P = 0.05). Currently, medical students experience high levels of mental health symptoms, especially female students, those at a preclinical level and living in regions with a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases. Screening for mental health issues, psychological support, and long-term follow-up could alleviate the burden and protect future physicians.

Souadka A, Essangri H, Boualaoui I, Ghannam A, Benkabbou A, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Majbar MA.
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 24;15(11):e0242727.

Introduction: The insertion of an implantable central venous access is performed according to a variety of approaches which allow the access to the subclavian vein, yet the supraclavicular technique has been underused and never compared to the other methods. The aim of this study was to testify on the efficacy and safety of the subclavian puncture without ultrasound guidance « Yoffa » in comparison with the classical infraclavicular approach (ICA).

Material and methods: This is a retrospective study with prospective data collection on patients followed at the national oncology institute for cancer, in the period extending from May 1st 2017 to August 31st 2017. All patients had a totally implantable central venous access device inserted by the same surgeon AS for chemotherapy administration and demographic characteristics, as well as procedure details were examined. The primary outcomes were the intraoperative complications, while the secondary outcomes represented immediate postoperative and mid-term complications (at 15 months of follow up). Outcomes were compared between techniques by means of non parametric tests and the Fischer test.

Results: Our study included 135 patients with 70 patients undergoing the subclavian technique, while 65 were subject to the infraclavicular approach. Both groups had no statistically significant demographic characteristics. The number of vein puncture attempts exceeding once, the accidental artery puncture and operative time were more significant in the ICA group; (39,6 vs 17,6 p = 0,01) (9.2% vs 0; p = 0,01) and (27± 13 vs 23± 8min, p = 0.045) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the immediate and midterm complication rate between the two methods 1(1,4) vs 2 (3) p = 0.5.

Conclusion: In case of unavailability of ultrasonographic guidance, the use of the supra-clavicular landmarks approach is linked to higher success rates and less arterial punctures, thereby proving to be a safe and reliable approach.

Essangri H, Majbar MA, Benkabbou A, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Souadka A.
Surgery. 2021 Jul;170(1):47-52.

Background: Bowel dysfunction symptoms such as stool clustering, urgency, incomplete voiding, and fecal incontinence are frequent after colorectal surgery and known as the low anterior resection syndrome. The Wexner score is the most widely used tool for fecal incontinence assessment. We aimed to translate and test the psychometric properties of the Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner questionnaire in patients with low anterior resection syndrome after rectal surgery.

Methods: The Wexner questionnaire was translated to Moroccan Arabic and administered to a group of 158 patients, among which a subgroup of 43 patients took the test for a second time to examine test-retest reliability. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to determine internal consistency and correlation, and the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life C30 and the low anterior resection syndrome questionnaires were assessed for convergent validity. Discriminant validity was demonstrated through the Wexner score ability to detect differences based on the patients’ different clinical and pathological characteristics.

Results: One hundred and fifty-eight patients completed the Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner score, which showed an excellent internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha score of 0.91. Test-retest reliability was established by a Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement. The score showed positive correlation to the low anterior resection syndrome score (r = 0.748; P < .001) and the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life C30 diarrhea symptom scale (r = 0.519; P < .001). A negative correlation was also demonstrated for each one of the 5 European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life C30 functional scales, namely physical functioning (r = -0.217 ; P = .006), role functioning (r = -0.267; P = .001), emotional functioning (r = -0.266; P = .001), cognitive functioning (r = -0.283; P < .001), and social functioning (r = -0,283; P < .001). The Wexner score differed between patients according to tumor location, chemoradiotherapy, type of mesorectal excision, and anastomosis.

Conclusion: The Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner score shows good psychometric properties and can be used for fecal incontinence assessment, particularly in colorectal cancer patients.

Souadka A, Essangri H, Majbar MA, Benkabbou A, Boutayeb S, Amrani L, Ghannam A, El Ahmadi B, Belkhadir ZH, Mohsine R, Souadka A, Elias D.

Cancers (Basel). 2021 Mar 3;13(5):1088.

Implementing a multimodal management of peritoneal surface malignancies is a steep and complex process, especially as complete cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is the backbone and the major prognostic factor for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures. The implementation of such a program is a challenging process, particularly in low-middle income (LMIC) countries where ressource restrictions may represent a major hurdle to HIPEC appliances acquisition. Herein is the first audit of the implementation of a national peritoneal malignancy program in a north African country. The audit process was performed according to the three implementation steps, namely initiation (« 1 »:2005-2008), transition (« 2 »:2009-2013) and consolidation (« 3 »:2014-2017). We included all consecutive CRS without HIPEC performed with curative intent for ovarian, gastric, colorectal and pseudomyxoma peritonei type of malignancies with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance Status ≤ 2. Target outcomes for incomplete cytoreduction (ICRS), serious complications ≥ 3b according to the Clavien-Dindo scoring, and early oncologic failure (EOF; disease progression within 2 years of treatment) were compared between the three phases. Independent risk factors correlated to these three outcomes were calculated using a logistic regression model.198 CRS procedures were completed with 49, 60 and 89 cases performed in the three phases, respectively. Overall, patients were comparable except for ECOG and ASA scores which were more severe in the third phase. The comparison of ICRS, serious complications and EOF rates showed a significant reduction between the three phases with (34%, 18% and 4% p = <0.001), (30.6%, 20% and 11.2%, p = 0.019) and (38.8%, 23.3% and 12.4% p = 0.002) respectively. Undergoing CRS in phase 3 on the other hand was a predictive factor of better short term surgical and oncological outcomes and completeness of cytoreduction, while ECOG performance status and spleno-pancreatectomy were also predictive factors of serious complications.

Essangri H, Majbar MA, Benkabbou A, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Souadka A.

Background: Sphincter sparing surgery is oftentimes associated with bowel dysfunction complaints, namely the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). The LARS questionnaire is widely used to assess this syndrome. The aim of this observational study is to translate this tool into arabic and test its psychometric properties in rectal cancer patients, in order to ease its use in clinical practice and future research.

Methods: The LARS questionnaire was translated to arabic and administered to a total of 143 patients. A subgroup of 42 patients took the test twice for test-retest reliability. Internal consistency was examined through cronbach’s alpha. The score results were correlated to the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire for convergent validity assessment, while discriminant validity was established through the ability of the LARS score to differentiate patients with different clinical and pathological criteria.

Results: The Moroccan Arabic version of the LARS score was completed by 143 patients. The internal consistency was demonstrated through a cronbach alpha score of 0.66. The agreement between the test and retest was established by a Bland Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement. 85.6% of patients remained in the same LARS category. The LARS score showed negative correlation with all five of the QLQ-C30 functional scales as well as positive correlation to the diarrhea symptom scale. The questionnaire score differed between patients according to their tumor location, chemoradiotherapy, type of mesorectal excision and anastomosis.

Conclusion: The Moroccan Arabic version of the LARS score shows good psychometric properties and can be used for bowel dysfunction assessment in clinical and research settings.

Amine Souadka, Mohammed Anass Majbar, Khalid El Himdi, Ismail Kassou, Hind Mrabti, Tijani El Harroudi, Mohammed Ahallat, Abdelkader Belkouchi, Raouf Mohsine, Abdelmalek Hrora, Amine Benkabbou

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL RESEARCH – Vol. VII, n 1, June, 2020; Pages: 748-754


Background: Surgical audit experiments have shown a positive, rapid and cost-effective impact on complication rates, recurrence rates, and overall survival even in the absence of interventional measures in digestive cancers. This study audit the quality of surgical procedures for digestive cancers.

Methods: This is a multicentric prospective non-comparative observational study performed in 4 surgical departments in 2 university centers. Eligible patients are adults scheduled for elective surgery for a proven or suspected digestive cancer, in a curative or palliative intent; or included no later than 72 hours after surgery in case of an emergent procedure. The Cancer should be proven or suspected in the following digestive tract: colon, appendix, anus, rectum, esophagus, stomach, esogastric junction, bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, pancreas, duodenum, small intestine and liver. Patients are excluded in case of 1) surgical intervention indicated for: a condition that is not a digestive tract cancer; 2) proven or suspected cancer of non-digestive location 3) a proven or suspected cancer of peritoneal localization. 4) surgical intervention indicated for a progressive disease or a local recurrence proven or suspected of a digestive localization cancer having already been resected (with the exception of situations of iterative liver resection for liver metastasis hepatic and recovery of the tumor bed after the discovery of vesicular cancer on cholecystectomy specimen); 5) intervention is for diagnostic purposes without any curative or palliative intention

A total of 1500 patients is expected. The primary objectives of this study are to assess both 90 days of post-operative outcomes and three years oncological outcomes for patient operated for each included digestive cancer. Secondary objectives arre 1)to analyze treatment decisions made within multidisciplinary team meeting/tumour board for every localization and the completion of preoperative workup staging according to local guidelines and 2) to determine the impact of reporting anonymous trimestrial feedback to surgeons on improving their surgical performance and outcomes 3) To assess quality of life in patient operated for colorectal cancer in curative intent.

Discussion: This is the first multicentric north african registry assessing the quality of surgical procedures for digestive tract cancer and analyzing the impact of reporting sequential anonymous feedback to the surgeon on quality improvement.

Keywords: Qualtiy, Rectal Neoplasms, Digestive cancer, obsergatory, Multicentric cohort study, Surgical procedures

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