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Lahfidi A, Imrani K, Youssef Y, Jerguigue H, Benkabbou A, Mohsine R, Latib R, Omor Y.
Radiol Case Rep. 2021 Apr 10;16(6):1388-1390.

The papillomatosis is a very rare benign pathology diagnosed histologically with a significant potential for malignant transformation. We report a case a 60-year-old female without comorbidity present the gallbladder papillomatosis without involvement of the intra or extra hepatic biliary tract. The interest in knowing the radiological aspect of this pathology and make the early diagnosis in order to oriented treatment.

EMPODaT Consortium. Transpl Int. 2021 Aug;34(8):1553-1565.

This prospective study reports the design and results obtained after the EMPODaT project implementation. This project was funded by the Tempus programme of the European Commission with the objective to implement a common postgraduate programme on organ donation and transplantation (ODT) in six selected universities from Middle East/North Africa (MENA) countries (Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco). The consortium, coordinated by the University of Barcelona, included universities from Spain, Germany, Sweden and France. The first phase of the project was to perform an analysis of the current situation in the beneficiary countries, including existing training programmes on ODT, Internet connection, digital facilities and competences, training needs, and ODT activity and accreditation requirements. A total of 90 healthcare postgraduate students participated in the 1-year training programme (30 ECTS academic credits). The methodology was based on e-learning modules and face-to-face courses in English and French. Training activities were evaluated through pre- and post-tests, self-assessment activities and evaluation charts. Quality was assessed through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The project results on a reproducible and innovative international postgraduate programme, improvement of knowledge, satisfaction of the participants and confirms the need on professionalizing the activity as the cornerstone to ensure organ transplantation self-sufficiency in MENA countries.

de’Angelis N, Catena F, Memeo R, Coccolini F, Martínez-Pérez A, Romeo OM, De Simone B, Di Saverio S, Brustia R, Rhaiem R, Piardi T, Conticchio M, Marchegiani F, Beghdadi N, Abu-Zidan FM, Alikhanov R, Allard MA, Allievi N, Amaddeo G, Ansaloni L, Andersson R, Andolfi E, Azfar M, Bala M, Benkabbou A, Ben-Ishay O, Bianchi G, Biffl WL, Brunetti F, Carra MC, Casanova D, Celentano V, Ceresoli M, Chiara O, Cimbanassi S, Bini R, Coimbra R, Luigi de’Angelis G, Decembrino F, De Palma A, de Reuver PR, Domingo C, Cotsoglou C, Ferrero A, Fraga GP, Gaiani F, Gheza F, Gurrado A, Harrison E, Henriquez A, Hofmeyr S, Iadarola R, Kashuk JL, Kianmanesh R, Kirkpatrick AW, Kluger Y, Landi F, Langella S, Lapointe R, Le Roy B, Luciani A, Machado F, Maggi U, Maier RV, Mefire AC, Hiramatsu K, Ordoñez C, Patrizi F, Planells M, Peitzman AB, Pekolj J, Perdigao F, Pereira BM, Pessaux P, Pisano M, Puyana JC, Rizoli S, Portigliotti L, Romito R, Sakakushev B, Sanei B, Scatton O, Serradilla-Martin M, Schneck AS, Sissoko ML, Sobhani I, Ten Broek RP, Testini M, Valinas R, Veloudis G, Vitali GC, Weber D, Zorcolo L, Giuliante F, Gavriilidis P, Fuks D, Sommacale D.

World J Emerg Surg. 2021 Jun 10;16(1):30.

Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dangerous complication of cholecystectomy, with significant postoperative sequelae for the patient in terms of morbidity, mortality, and long-term quality of life. BDIs have an estimated incidence of 0.4-1.5%, but considering the number of cholecystectomies performed worldwide, mostly by laparoscopy, surgeons must be prepared to manage this surgical challenge. Most BDIs are recognized either during the procedure or in the immediate postoperative period. However, some BDIs may be discovered later during the postoperative period, and this may translate to delayed or inappropriate treatments. Providing a specific diagnosis and a precise description of the BDI will expedite the decision-making process and increase the chance of treatment success. Subsequently, the choice and timing of the appropriate reconstructive strategy have a critical role in long-term prognosis. Currently, a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary interventions with different degrees of invasiveness is indicated for BDI management. These World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines have been produced following an exhaustive review of the current literature and an international expert panel discussion with the aim of providing evidence-based recommendations to facilitate and standardize the detection and management of BDIs during cholecystectomy. In particular, the 2020 WSES guidelines cover the following key aspects: (1) strategies to minimize the risk of BDI during cholecystectomy; (2) BDI rates in general surgery units and review of surgical practice; (3) how to classify, stage, and report BDI once detected; (4) how to manage an intraoperatively detected BDI; (5) indications for antibiotic treatment; (6) indications for clinical, biochemical, and imaging investigations for suspected BDI; and (7) how to manage a postoperatively detected BDI.

Houssaini K, Majbar MA, Souadka A, Lahnaoui O, El Ahmadi B, Ghannam A, Houssain Belkhadir Z, Mohsine R, Benkabbou A.
J Visc Surg. 2021 Mar 17:S1878-7886(21)00028-X.

Aim of the study: To analyze the collective learning curve in the performance of safe liver resections, using the decrease of severe postoperative complications (SPC) as a proxy for overall safety competency.

Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database in the setting of a liver surgery program implementation in a tertiary center in Morocco. The 100 first consecutive cases of elective liver resections starting from January 1st, 2018 were included in the analysis. SPC were defined as CD>IIIa during the first 90 postoperative days. We used a cumulative sum (CUSUM) technique to determine the number of cases required to achieve safety competency. We then compared case characteristics before and after the learning curve completion.

Results: SPC occurred in 15 cases (15%), including 5 deaths (5%). The CUSUM chart revealed a learning curve completion at the 49th case, marked by an inflection point towards the decrease in SPC (24.5% vs 5.9%; P=0.009). In period 2 (after), cases were associated with less diabetes, less synchronous digestive resection, more cirrhosis, and more prolonged preoperative chemotherapy. The rates of major resection (30.6% vs 29.9%; P=0.89) and biliary reconstruction were comparable, as were the operating time, and estimated blood loss.

Conclusion: Approximately 50 cases were required to complete the learning curve and improve the overall safety of liver resection. In our setting, the learning curve chronology was consistent with collective measures, including team stabilization and protocol development.


Benkabbou A, Souadka A, Hachim H, Awab A, Alilou M, Serji B, El Malki HO, Mohsine R, Ifrine L, Vibert E, Belkouchi A.

Background and study aims: In developing countries, endemic indications, blood shortages, and the scarcity of liver surgeons and intensive care providers can affect liver resection (LR) outcomes, but these have been rarely addressed in the literature. Therefore, in this study we determined risk factors for major complications after LR in a North African general surgery and teaching department.

Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, 213 consecutive LRs were performed on 203 patients. All patients underwent a postoperative follow-up of >90 days. Postoperative complications were assessed according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of surgical complications. A score of CD ≥III is considered as major postoperative complications. In this study, we analyzed the variables assumed to affect these complications.

Results: The overall 90-day complication rate was 35.7% (n = 76), including a CD ≥III of 14% (n = 30) and a mortality rate of 6.1% (n = 14). According to the multivariate analysis, a preoperative performance status (PS) of ≥2 (P = 0.011; odds ratios [OR], 6.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.55-29.8), an estimated intraoperative blood loss of >500 ml (P = 0.002; OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.23-11.20), and bilioenteric anastomosis (P < 0.004; OR, 7.76; 95% CI, 1.5-3.89) were independent risk factors for major complications after LR.

Conclusion: We recommend that, in the setting of a non-Eastern/non-Western general surgery and teaching department, patients with a PS of ≥2 should undergo a specific selection and preoperative optimization protocol; intermittent clamping indications should be extended; and special attention should paid to patients undergoing LR associated with biliary reconstruction, such as for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

Houssaini K, Lahnaoui O, Souadka A, Majbar MA, Ghanam A, El Ahmadi B, Belkhadir Z, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Benkabbou A.

Background: The aggregate root cause analysis (AggRCA) was designed to improve the understanding of system vulnerabilities contributing to patient harm, including surgical complications. It remains poorly used due to methodological complexity and resource limitations. This study aimed to identify the main patterns contributing to severe complications after liver resection using an AggRCA.

Methods: This was a retrospective qualitative study aimed to identify the main patterns contributing to severe complications, defined as strictly higher than grade IIIa according to the Clavien-Dindo classification within the first 90 days after liver resection. All consecutive severe complications that occurred between January 1st, 2018 and December 31st, 2019 were identified from an electronic database and included in an AggRCA. This included a structured morbidity and mortality review (MMR) reporting tool based on 50 contributory factors adapted from 6 ALARM categories: « Patient », « Tasks », « Individual staff », « Team », « Work environment », and « Management and Institutional context ». Data resulting from individual-participant root cause analysis (RCA) of single-cases were validated collectively then aggregated. The main patterns were suggested from the contributory factors reported in more than half of the cases.

Results: In 105 consecutive liver resection cases, 15 patients (14.3%) developed severe postoperative complications, including 5 (4.8%) who died. AggRCA resulted in the identification of 36 contributory factors. Eight contributory factors were reported in more than half of the cases and were compiled in three entangled patterns: (1) Disrupted perioperative process, (2) Unplanned intraoperative change, (3) Ineffective communication.

Conclusion: A pragmatic aggregated RCA process improved our understanding of system vulnerabilities based on the analysis of a limited number of events and a reasonable resource intensity. The identification of patterns contributing to severe complications lay the rationale of future contextualized safety interventions beyond the scope of liver resections.

Anass M. Majbar, Amine Benkabbou, Raouf Mohsine, Amine Souadka

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL RESEARCH – Vol. VI, n 3, February 2020; Pages: 724-733;


The COVID 19 outbreak has caused the cancellation of most elective oncological surgery around the world to limit the risk of virus dissemination. As we are exiting the crisis, surgical teams will face strong challenges while resuming normal elective surgery. The accumulation of cases will have to be managed by defining strong selection criteria, taking into account the patient and the disease conditions. In order to reduce the risk of infection, non-COVID patients should be treated in dedicated non-COVID areas, preferably in separate buildings or hospitals. Departments, units and operative theaters should put in place rigorous actions and protocols to protect the patient and healthcare workers. Adequate protective equipment must be readily available for healthcare workers and patients. Finally, teams should keep an adaptive mindset by preparing strategies to maintain surgical activity in case of repeated COVID 19 waves.

Keywords: COVID 19, Guidelines, Lockdown ease, Surgical oncology

Chaimae Charoui, Amine Souadka, Saber Boutayeb, Rachida Latib, Laila Rifai, Laila Amrani, Amine Benkabbou, Raouf Mohsine, Mohammed Anass Majbar

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL RESEARCH – Vol. VII, n 1, June, 2020. Pages: 764-769


Introduction: The multidisciplinary team oncology meeting (MDT) has become a standard in oncology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of a validated tool, the Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making, in the evaluation of the decision-making mode during the digestive cancer MDT in order to reach recommendations for improvement.

Results: Eight consecutive MDTs were observed (N = 228 patients). On average, 32 patients were discussed by MDT with an average of 2 min 55 s (interval: 30 s-10 min 16 s) per patient. A decision was reached in 84.6% of the cases. Although the medical information was judged to be of good quality, the psychosocial information (average 1.29) and the patients’ point of view (average 1.03) were judged to be of low quality. For teamwork, the contribution of surgeons (average 4.56) and oncologists (average 3.99) was greater than radiologists (3.12), radiotherapists (1.74) and pathologists (1.02).

Conclusions: The tool made it possible to identify a disparity in the quality of the different aspects of the information and in the participation of specialists, making it possible to identify specific improvement measures. Its regular use would improve the quality of patient care.

Keywords: Decision making, Quality improvement, Multidisciplinary concertation meeting, MDT-MODe, Morocco

Imad Marzak, Mohammed Anass Majbar, Kholoud Houssaini, Amine Benkabbou, Amine Souadka, Raouf Mohsine, Mohamed Raiss, Abdelmalek Hrora

Journal of Medical and Surgical Research. Volume 6, Pages 697-701


Background: Over 20 million inguinal hernia repairs are performed in the world every year. These repairs require the use of various techniques. In Morocco, there is a prominent disparity in terms of types of structure, human assets and available equipment, patient selection, and perioperative management protocols. The goal of this study was to audit the results of the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia repairs in adults in Morocco.

Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional prospective study has been conducted by the Moroccan Society of Surgery (la Société Marocaine de Chirurgie) and the Moroccan Society of Digestive Surgery (la Société Marocaine de Chirurgie Digestive). It included male patients aged 18 and above, with an inguinal hernia that has been clinically diagnosed by a surgeon and repaired during the recruitment phase that extends over a period of 30 days. The measured variables consist of the anesthesia type, preoperative antibiotic treatment, surgical technique, length of in-hospital stay and intraoperative and postoperative complications up to 30 days.

Results: The response rate of the survey was 88.78% which led to the study of 95 cases. 12 patients (12.6%) received general anesthesia , 82 patients (86,3%) regional anesthesia , and 1 patient (1.1%) local anesthesia. No prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed to 14.7% of the patients while they were systematically administered to 84.2% of the patients at the induction, and a few days prior to surgery for one patient. Various approaches were used to repair the inguinal hernia. 83.2% of the patients were operated with the Lichtenstein technique. Laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal approach (TAPP) was performed on 11.6% of the patients. Outpatient surgery was performed on 2.1% of the patients. 12 patients developed a postoperative seroma, of which 5 patients were operated using laparoscopic TAPP. Only 2 patients previously operated using the Lichtenstein open mesh repairs have developed a postoperative hematoma. 1 patient (1.1%) died postoperatively.

Conclusion: This study showed disparities in the perioperative management of inguinal hernia in Morocco. Potential improvement opportunities were determined through the conducted nationwide study. In this regard, scholarly societies could play a significant role by programming ongoing training sessions, with the aim of sensitizing surgeons to the best practice of inguinal hernia repair.

Keywords: Inguinal Hernia, laparoscopic Repair, Lichtenstein Repair, Morocco, Surgical Audit



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