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Abahssain H, Moukafih B, Essangri H, Mrabti H, Meddah B, Guessous F, Fadhil FZ, Souadka A, Errihani H.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 Jan;27(1):143-149.

Background: Ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE) is a rare and serious adverse reaction. Thus far, no standard medication has been documentedto be efficient in the reversal of IIE, and while ifosfamide infusion interruption and hydration are recommended, methylene blue (MB) administration remains controversial.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records to assess cases with IIE after ifosfamide infusion. We included all patients having received an ifosfamide infusion during their hospitalization in the medical oncology unit of the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco, between September 2016 and September 2017. We subsequently conducted a literature review to determine the role of MB in IIE by searching PubMed using the terms “Methylene Blue” and “Ifosfamide”.

Results: A total of 88 patients received ifosfamide, and four patients had IIE. Ifosfamide infusion was stopped immediately after the IIE occurrence, and patients underwent renal function correction with hydration. All patients received MB infusion, and three patients had an improvement of their neurological status. As regards the literature review, 34 articles were reviewed and 16 items were included in the review. Overall, 38 (65.5%) patients received MB infusion and 28 (75.6%) patients responded favorably to the treatment.

Conclusions: Methylene blue can be used as a treatment for IIE owing to the severity of the IIE as well as absence of standard medication. Nonetheless, side effects such as serotonergic syndrome should be investigated. More broadly, prospective studies and controlled trials are needed to explore the contribution of MB in IIE management and encourage its use.



Essangri H, Sabir M, Benkabbou A, Majbar MA, Amrani L, Ghannam A, Lekehal B, Mohsine R, Souadka A.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan;104(1):95-102.

The COVID-19 pandemic has great consequences on mental health. We aimed to assess medical students’ psychological condition and influencing factors as a baseline evidence for interventions promoting their mental wellbeing. We conducted an online survey from April 8 to April 18, 2020 to examine the mental health of medical students by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, seven-item Insomnia Severity Index, and six-item Kessler psychological distress scale. Factors associated with mental health outcomes were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Five hundred forty-nine students completed the survey; 341 (62.3%), 410 (74.6%), 344 (62.6%), and 379 (69%) reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, and distress, respectively. Female students, living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations, more than 25 days confinement, psychiatric consult history, and being in a preclinical level of studies had higher median scores and severe symptom levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed female gender as a risk factor for severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.653; 95% CI: 1.020-2.679; P = 0.042), depression (OR: 2.167; 95% CI: 1.435-3.271; P < 0.001), insomnia (OR: 1.830; 95% CI: 1.176-2.847; P = 0.007), and distress (OR: 1.994; 95% CI: 1.338-2.972; P = 0.001); preclinical level of enrollment as a risk factor for depression (OR: 0.679; 95% CI: 0.521-0.885; P = 0.004), insomnia (OR: 0.720; 95% CI: 0.545-0.949; P = 0.02), and distress (OR: 0.650; 95% CI: 0.499-0.847; P = 0.001), whereas living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations was a risk factor for severe anxiety (OR: 1.628; 95% CI: 1.090-2.432; P = 0.017) and depression (OR: 1.438; 95% CI: 1.002-2.097; P = 0.05). Currently, medical students experience high levels of mental health symptoms, especially female students, those at a preclinical level and living in regions with a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases. Screening for mental health issues, psychological support, and long-term follow-up could alleviate the burden and protect future physicians.



Souadka A, Essangri H, Boualaoui I, Ghannam A, Benkabbou A, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Majbar MA.
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 24;15(11):e0242727.

Introduction: The insertion of an implantable central venous access is performed according to a variety of approaches which allow the access to the subclavian vein, yet the supraclavicular technique has been underused and never compared to the other methods. The aim of this study was to testify on the efficacy and safety of the subclavian puncture without ultrasound guidance « Yoffa » in comparison with the classical infraclavicular approach (ICA).

Material and methods: This is a retrospective study with prospective data collection on patients followed at the national oncology institute for cancer, in the period extending from May 1st 2017 to August 31st 2017. All patients had a totally implantable central venous access device inserted by the same surgeon AS for chemotherapy administration and demographic characteristics, as well as procedure details were examined. The primary outcomes were the intraoperative complications, while the secondary outcomes represented immediate postoperative and mid-term complications (at 15 months of follow up). Outcomes were compared between techniques by means of non parametric tests and the Fischer test.

Results: Our study included 135 patients with 70 patients undergoing the subclavian technique, while 65 were subject to the infraclavicular approach. Both groups had no statistically significant demographic characteristics. The number of vein puncture attempts exceeding once, the accidental artery puncture and operative time were more significant in the ICA group; (39,6 vs 17,6 p = 0,01) (9.2% vs 0; p = 0,01) and (27± 13 vs 23± 8min, p = 0.045) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the immediate and midterm complication rate between the two methods 1(1,4) vs 2 (3) p = 0.5.

Conclusion: In case of unavailability of ultrasonographic guidance, the use of the supra-clavicular landmarks approach is linked to higher success rates and less arterial punctures, thereby proving to be a safe and reliable approach.



Essangri H, Majbar MA, Benkabbou A, Amrani L, Mohsine R, Souadka A.
Surgery. 2021 Jul;170(1):47-52.

Background: Bowel dysfunction symptoms such as stool clustering, urgency, incomplete voiding, and fecal incontinence are frequent after colorectal surgery and known as the low anterior resection syndrome. The Wexner score is the most widely used tool for fecal incontinence assessment. We aimed to translate and test the psychometric properties of the Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner questionnaire in patients with low anterior resection syndrome after rectal surgery.

Methods: The Wexner questionnaire was translated to Moroccan Arabic and administered to a group of 158 patients, among which a subgroup of 43 patients took the test for a second time to examine test-retest reliability. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to determine internal consistency and correlation, and the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life C30 and the low anterior resection syndrome questionnaires were assessed for convergent validity. Discriminant validity was demonstrated through the Wexner score ability to detect differences based on the patients’ different clinical and pathological characteristics.

Results: One hundred and fifty-eight patients completed the Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner score, which showed an excellent internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha score of 0.91. Test-retest reliability was established by a Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement. The score showed positive correlation to the low anterior resection syndrome score (r = 0.748; P < .001) and the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life C30 diarrhea symptom scale (r = 0.519; P < .001). A negative correlation was also demonstrated for each one of the 5 European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life C30 functional scales, namely physical functioning (r = -0.217 ; P = .006), role functioning (r = -0.267; P = .001), emotional functioning (r = -0.266; P = .001), cognitive functioning (r = -0.283; P < .001), and social functioning (r = -0,283; P < .001). The Wexner score differed between patients according to tumor location, chemoradiotherapy, type of mesorectal excision, and anastomosis.

Conclusion: The Moroccan Arabic dialect version of the Wexner score shows good psychometric properties and can be used for fecal incontinence assessment, particularly in colorectal cancer patients.


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