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GlobalSurg Collaborative.BMJ Glob Health. 2020 Dec;5(12):e003429.

Introduction: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). However, there is a lack of data available about SSI in children worldwide, especially from low-income and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SSI in children and associations between SSI and morbidity across human development settings.

Methods: A multicentre, international, prospective, validated cohort study of children aged under 16 years undergoing clean-contaminated, contaminated or dirty gastrointestinal surgery. Any hospital in the world providing paediatric surgery was eligible to contribute data between January and July 2016. The primary outcome was the incidence of SSI by 30 days. Relationships between explanatory variables and SSI were examined using multilevel logistic regression. Countries were stratified into high development, middle development and low development groups using the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI).

Results: Of 1159 children across 181 hospitals in 51 countries, 523 (45·1%) children were from high HDI, 397 (34·2%) from middle HDI and 239 (20·6%) from low HDI countries. The 30-day SSI rate was 6.3% (33/523) in high HDI, 12·8% (51/397) in middle HDI and 24·7% (59/239) in low HDI countries. SSI was associated with higher incidence of 30-day mortality, intervention, organ-space infection and other HAIs, with the highest rates seen in low HDI countries. Median length of stay in patients who had an SSI was longer (7.0 days), compared with 3.0 days in patients who did not have an SSI. Use of laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower SSI rates, even after accounting for HDI.

Conclusion: The odds of SSI in children is nearly four times greater in low HDI compared with high HDI countries. Policies to reduce SSI should be prioritised as part of the wider global agenda.



Oesophago-Gastric Anastomosis Study Group on the West Midlands Research Collaborative.
Br J Surg. 2021 Jan 27;108(1):66-73.

Background: The Oesophago-Gastric Anastomosis Audit (OGAA) is an international collaborative group set up to study anastomotic leak outcomes after oesophagectomy for cancer. This Delphi study aimed to prioritize future research areas of unmet clinical need in RCTs to reduce anastomotic leaks.

Methods: A modified Delphi process was overseen by the OGAA committee, national leads, and engaged clinicians from high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs). A three-stage iterative process was used to prioritize research topics, including a scoping systematic review (stage 1), and two rounds of anonymous electronic voting (stages 2 and 3) addressing research priority and ability to recruit. Stratified analyses were performed by country income.

Results: In stage 1, the steering committee proposed research topics across six domains: preoperative optimization, surgical oncology, technical approach, anastomotic technique, enhanced recovery and nutrition, and management of leaks. In stages 2 and stage 3, 192 and 171 respondents respectively participated in online voting. Prioritized research topics include prehabilitation, anastomotic technique, and timing of surgery after neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. Stratified analyses by country income demonstrated no significant differences in research priorities between HICs and LMICs. However, for ability to recruit, there were significant differences between LMICs and HICs for themes related to the technical approach (minimally invasive, width of gastric tube, ischaemic preconditioning) and location of the anastomosis.

Conclusion: Several areas of research priority are consistent across LMICs and HICs, but discrepancies in ability to recruit by country income will inform future study design.



ESCP Enhanced Recovery Collaborating Group. Colorectal Dis. 2021 Aug 8.

Aim: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS® ) Society guidelines aim to standardise perioperative care in colorectal surgery via 25 principles. We aimed to assess the variation in uptake of these principles across an international network of colorectal units.

Method: An online survey was circulated amongst European Society of Coloproctology members in 2019/20. For each ERAS® principle, respondents were asked to score how frequently the principle was implemented in their hospital, from 1 (‘rarely’) to 4 (‘always’). Respondents were also asked to recall whether practice had changed since 2017. Subgroup analyses based on hospital characteristics were conducted.

Results: Of hospitals approached, 58% responded to the survey (195/335), with 296 individual responses (multiple responses were received from some hospitals). The majority were European (163/195 [83.6%]). Overall, respondents indicated they ‘most often’ or ‘always’ adhered to most individual ERAS® principles (18/25 [72%]). Variability in uptake of principles was reported, with universal uptake of some principles (e.g., prophylactic antibiotics; early mobilisation) and inconsistency from ‘rarely’ to ‘always’ in others (e.g., no nasogastric intubation; no preoperative fasting and carbohydrate drinks). In alignment with 2018 ERAS® guideline updates, adherence to principles for prehabilitation, managing anaemia, and postoperative nutrition appears to have increased since 2017.

Conclusions: Uptake of ERAS® principles varied across hospitals, and not all 25 principles were equally adhered to. Whilst some principles exhibited a high level of acceptance, others had a wide variability in uptake indicative of controversy or barriers to uptake. Further research into specific principles is required to improve ERAS® implementation.



GlobalSurg Collaborative and National Institute for Health Research Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery.
Lancet. 2021 Jan 30;397(10272):387-397.

Background: 80% of individuals with cancer will require a surgical procedure, yet little comparative data exist on early outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared postoperative outcomes in breast, colorectal, and gastric cancer surgery in hospitals worldwide, focusing on the effect of disease stage and complications on postoperative mortality.

Methods: This was a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for primary breast, colorectal, or gastric cancer requiring a skin incision done under general or neuraxial anaesthesia. The primary outcome was death or major complication within 30 days of surgery. Multilevel logistic regression determined relationships within three-level nested models of patients within hospitals and countries. Hospital-level infrastructure effects were explored with three-way mediation analyses. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03471494.

Findings: Between April 1, 2018, and Jan 31, 2019, we enrolled 15 958 patients from 428 hospitals in 82 countries (high income 9106 patients, 31 countries; upper-middle income 2721 patients, 23 countries; or lower-middle income 4131 patients, 28 countries). Patients in LMICs presented with more advanced disease compared with patients in high-income countries. 30-day mortality was higher for gastric cancer in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (adjusted odds ratio 3·72, 95% CI 1·70-8·16) and for colorectal cancer in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (4·59, 2·39-8·80) and upper-middle-income countries (2·06, 1·11-3·83). No difference in 30-day mortality was seen in breast cancer. The proportion of patients who died after a major complication was greatest in low-income or lower-middle-income countries (6·15, 3·26-11·59) and upper-middle-income countries (3·89, 2·08-7·29). Postoperative death after complications was partly explained by patient factors (60%) and partly by hospital or country (40%). The absence of consistently available postoperative care facilities was associated with seven to 10 more deaths per 100 major complications in LMICs. Cancer stage alone explained little of the early variation in mortality or postoperative complications.

Interpretation: Higher levels of mortality after cancer surgery in LMICs was not fully explained by later presentation of disease. The capacity to rescue patients from surgical complications is a tangible opportunity for meaningful intervention. Early death after cancer surgery might be reduced by policies focusing on strengthening perioperative care systems to detect and intervene in common complications.



Lahfidi A, Imrani K, Youssef Y, Jerguigue H, Benkabbou A, Mohsine R, Latib R, Omor Y.
Radiol Case Rep. 2021 Apr 10;16(6):1388-1390.

The papillomatosis is a very rare benign pathology diagnosed histologically with a significant potential for malignant transformation. We report a case a 60-year-old female without comorbidity present the gallbladder papillomatosis without involvement of the intra or extra hepatic biliary tract. The interest in knowing the radiological aspect of this pathology and make the early diagnosis in order to oriented treatment.



EMPODaT Consortium. Transpl Int. 2021 Aug;34(8):1553-1565.

This prospective study reports the design and results obtained after the EMPODaT project implementation. This project was funded by the Tempus programme of the European Commission with the objective to implement a common postgraduate programme on organ donation and transplantation (ODT) in six selected universities from Middle East/North Africa (MENA) countries (Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco). The consortium, coordinated by the University of Barcelona, included universities from Spain, Germany, Sweden and France. The first phase of the project was to perform an analysis of the current situation in the beneficiary countries, including existing training programmes on ODT, Internet connection, digital facilities and competences, training needs, and ODT activity and accreditation requirements. A total of 90 healthcare postgraduate students participated in the 1-year training programme (30 ECTS academic credits). The methodology was based on e-learning modules and face-to-face courses in English and French. Training activities were evaluated through pre- and post-tests, self-assessment activities and evaluation charts. Quality was assessed through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The project results on a reproducible and innovative international postgraduate programme, improvement of knowledge, satisfaction of the participants and confirms the need on professionalizing the activity as the cornerstone to ensure organ transplantation self-sufficiency in MENA countries.



de’Angelis N, Catena F, Memeo R, Coccolini F, Martínez-Pérez A, Romeo OM, De Simone B, Di Saverio S, Brustia R, Rhaiem R, Piardi T, Conticchio M, Marchegiani F, Beghdadi N, Abu-Zidan FM, Alikhanov R, Allard MA, Allievi N, Amaddeo G, Ansaloni L, Andersson R, Andolfi E, Azfar M, Bala M, Benkabbou A, Ben-Ishay O, Bianchi G, Biffl WL, Brunetti F, Carra MC, Casanova D, Celentano V, Ceresoli M, Chiara O, Cimbanassi S, Bini R, Coimbra R, Luigi de’Angelis G, Decembrino F, De Palma A, de Reuver PR, Domingo C, Cotsoglou C, Ferrero A, Fraga GP, Gaiani F, Gheza F, Gurrado A, Harrison E, Henriquez A, Hofmeyr S, Iadarola R, Kashuk JL, Kianmanesh R, Kirkpatrick AW, Kluger Y, Landi F, Langella S, Lapointe R, Le Roy B, Luciani A, Machado F, Maggi U, Maier RV, Mefire AC, Hiramatsu K, Ordoñez C, Patrizi F, Planells M, Peitzman AB, Pekolj J, Perdigao F, Pereira BM, Pessaux P, Pisano M, Puyana JC, Rizoli S, Portigliotti L, Romito R, Sakakushev B, Sanei B, Scatton O, Serradilla-Martin M, Schneck AS, Sissoko ML, Sobhani I, Ten Broek RP, Testini M, Valinas R, Veloudis G, Vitali GC, Weber D, Zorcolo L, Giuliante F, Gavriilidis P, Fuks D, Sommacale D.

World J Emerg Surg. 2021 Jun 10;16(1):30.

Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dangerous complication of cholecystectomy, with significant postoperative sequelae for the patient in terms of morbidity, mortality, and long-term quality of life. BDIs have an estimated incidence of 0.4-1.5%, but considering the number of cholecystectomies performed worldwide, mostly by laparoscopy, surgeons must be prepared to manage this surgical challenge. Most BDIs are recognized either during the procedure or in the immediate postoperative period. However, some BDIs may be discovered later during the postoperative period, and this may translate to delayed or inappropriate treatments. Providing a specific diagnosis and a precise description of the BDI will expedite the decision-making process and increase the chance of treatment success. Subsequently, the choice and timing of the appropriate reconstructive strategy have a critical role in long-term prognosis. Currently, a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary interventions with different degrees of invasiveness is indicated for BDI management. These World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines have been produced following an exhaustive review of the current literature and an international expert panel discussion with the aim of providing evidence-based recommendations to facilitate and standardize the detection and management of BDIs during cholecystectomy. In particular, the 2020 WSES guidelines cover the following key aspects: (1) strategies to minimize the risk of BDI during cholecystectomy; (2) BDI rates in general surgery units and review of surgical practice; (3) how to classify, stage, and report BDI once detected; (4) how to manage an intraoperatively detected BDI; (5) indications for antibiotic treatment; (6) indications for clinical, biochemical, and imaging investigations for suspected BDI; and (7) how to manage a postoperatively detected BDI.



Abahssain H, Moukafih B, Essangri H, Mrabti H, Meddah B, Guessous F, Fadhil FZ, Souadka A, Errihani H.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 Jan;27(1):143-149.

Background: Ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE) is a rare and serious adverse reaction. Thus far, no standard medication has been documentedto be efficient in the reversal of IIE, and while ifosfamide infusion interruption and hydration are recommended, methylene blue (MB) administration remains controversial.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records to assess cases with IIE after ifosfamide infusion. We included all patients having received an ifosfamide infusion during their hospitalization in the medical oncology unit of the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco, between September 2016 and September 2017. We subsequently conducted a literature review to determine the role of MB in IIE by searching PubMed using the terms “Methylene Blue” and “Ifosfamide”.

Results: A total of 88 patients received ifosfamide, and four patients had IIE. Ifosfamide infusion was stopped immediately after the IIE occurrence, and patients underwent renal function correction with hydration. All patients received MB infusion, and three patients had an improvement of their neurological status. As regards the literature review, 34 articles were reviewed and 16 items were included in the review. Overall, 38 (65.5%) patients received MB infusion and 28 (75.6%) patients responded favorably to the treatment.

Conclusions: Methylene blue can be used as a treatment for IIE owing to the severity of the IIE as well as absence of standard medication. Nonetheless, side effects such as serotonergic syndrome should be investigated. More broadly, prospective studies and controlled trials are needed to explore the contribution of MB in IIE management and encourage its use.



COVIDSurg Collaborative.
Colorectal Dis. 2020 Nov 15:10.1111/codi.15431.

Aim: This study aimed to describe the change in surgical practice and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on mortality after surgical resection of colorectal cancer during the initial phases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Method: This was an international cohort study of patients undergoing elective resection of colon or rectal cancer without preoperative suspicion of SARS-CoV-2. Centres entered data from their first recorded case of COVID-19 until 19 April 2020. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included anastomotic leak, postoperative SARS-CoV-2 and a comparison with prepandemic European Society of Coloproctology cohort data.

Results: From 2073 patients in 40 countries, 1.3% (27/2073) had a defunctioning stoma and 3.0% (63/2073) had an end stoma instead of an anastomosis only. Thirty-day mortality was 1.8% (38/2073), the incidence of postoperative SARS-CoV-2 was 3.8% (78/2073) and the anastomotic leak rate was 4.9% (86/1738). Mortality was lowest in patients without a leak or SARS-CoV-2 (14/1601, 0.9%) and highest in patients with both a leak and SARS-CoV-2 (5/13, 38.5%). Mortality was independently associated with anastomotic leak (adjusted odds ratio 6.01, 95% confidence interval 2.58-14.06), postoperative SARS-CoV-2 (16.90, 7.86-36.38), male sex (2.46, 1.01-5.93), age >70 years (2.87, 1.32-6.20) and advanced cancer stage (3.43, 1.16-10.21). Compared with prepandemic data, there were fewer anastomotic leaks (4.9% versus 7.7%) and an overall shorter length of stay (6 versus 7 days) but higher mortality (1.7% versus 1.1%).

Conclusion: Surgeons need to further mitigate against both SARS-CoV-2 and anastomotic leak when offering surgery during current and future COVID-19 waves based on patient, operative and organizational risks.



Essangri H, Sabir M, Benkabbou A, Majbar MA, Amrani L, Ghannam A, Lekehal B, Mohsine R, Souadka A.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan;104(1):95-102.

The COVID-19 pandemic has great consequences on mental health. We aimed to assess medical students’ psychological condition and influencing factors as a baseline evidence for interventions promoting their mental wellbeing. We conducted an online survey from April 8 to April 18, 2020 to examine the mental health of medical students by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, seven-item Insomnia Severity Index, and six-item Kessler psychological distress scale. Factors associated with mental health outcomes were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Five hundred forty-nine students completed the survey; 341 (62.3%), 410 (74.6%), 344 (62.6%), and 379 (69%) reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, and distress, respectively. Female students, living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations, more than 25 days confinement, psychiatric consult history, and being in a preclinical level of studies had higher median scores and severe symptom levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed female gender as a risk factor for severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.653; 95% CI: 1.020-2.679; P = 0.042), depression (OR: 2.167; 95% CI: 1.435-3.271; P < 0.001), insomnia (OR: 1.830; 95% CI: 1.176-2.847; P = 0.007), and distress (OR: 1.994; 95% CI: 1.338-2.972; P = 0.001); preclinical level of enrollment as a risk factor for depression (OR: 0.679; 95% CI: 0.521-0.885; P = 0.004), insomnia (OR: 0.720; 95% CI: 0.545-0.949; P = 0.02), and distress (OR: 0.650; 95% CI: 0.499-0.847; P = 0.001), whereas living in high COVID-19 prevalence locations was a risk factor for severe anxiety (OR: 1.628; 95% CI: 1.090-2.432; P = 0.017) and depression (OR: 1.438; 95% CI: 1.002-2.097; P = 0.05). Currently, medical students experience high levels of mental health symptoms, especially female students, those at a preclinical level and living in regions with a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases. Screening for mental health issues, psychological support, and long-term follow-up could alleviate the burden and protect future physicians.


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